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Become a generalist rather than a specialist? A summary of “Range” by David Epstein


In the competitive landscape of technology and IT, specialization is often presented as the royal road to success. But is this really the case? David Epstein, in his powerful book "Range", challenges this preconceived idea. He argues that versatility, or having "range" of skills and experience, is in fact what best prepares individuals to excel in complex and rapidly evolving fields.

Deconstructing the myth of "10,000 hours"

One of the first things Epstein does is tackle the well-known concept of "10,000 hours" popularized by Malcolm Gladwell. According to this theory, one would need to practice for 10,000 hours to achieve a level of mastery in any field. Epstein demonstrates that this rule does not apply universally and can even be harmful in "wicked environments" where the rules of the game are constantly changing.

Kind Environments vs. Wicked Environments

David Epstein distinguishes two types of environments in which individuals evolve: "kind environments" and "wicked environments". In "kind environments", the rules are well established, the patterns are recurring, and the results are immediate and clear. Firefighters, for example, often operate in this type of environment: they follow well-defined procedures, and the results of their actions are generally immediate. In these contexts, specialization and deliberate practice are often very effective.

In contrast, "wicked environments" are environments where the rules are less clear, where results can be delayed or misleading, and where experience in one area is often not directly transferable to another. In these situations, a more general approach is often more beneficial. Individuals with a broad range of skills and experiences are better equipped to solve complex problems, often drawing from diverse areas of knowledge to find creative and effective solutions.

Case studies and examples

One of the strengths of the book is the multitude of examples and case studies that Epstein presents to support his arguments. He cites the story of Roger Federer, who played several sports before becoming a tennis champion, in contrast to Tiger Woods, who specialized at a very young age. Epstein also explores the journeys of Nobel Prize winners and other exceptional figures who have benefited from having a broad range of interests and skills.

My opinion on the importance of versatility in tech

In the technology industry, versatility is not just a luxury, but a necessity. The pace of innovation is so rapid that it makes skills acquired just a few years ago virtually obsolete. Whether you are a developer working on evolving frameworks, a systems administrator facing migration to the cloud, or a software engineer integrating artificial intelligence into products, your ability to quickly learn and adapt is crucial. Versatility not only allows you to stay relevant in your field, but also to approach problems with a richer set of solutions and perspectives. A multidisciplinary person can often see connections or opportunities that even the most savvy specialist might miss. This versatility then becomes a strategic skill, offering a competitive advantage not only for the individual, but also for the team or company in which they operate.

Conclusion: Rethinking the journey to success

"Range" by David Epstein challenges us to reconsider our traditional notions of success and excellence. While standard professional consulting has long advocated early specialization and focused expertise, Epstein offers a different approach that is particularly relevant in our contemporary world. Our environment has become so complex and interconnected that versatility, with its broad skill base and ability to adapt those skills to new and unforeseen situations, seems to be the best preparation for tomorrow's challenges. For those of us immersed in the technological world, where change is the only constant, this perspective is not only enlightening, but also profoundly liberating. It gives us permission to follow less linear paths, to embrace curiosity and lifelong learning, and to see these traits not as distractions, but as essential assets for a successful career and personal fulfillment. p>

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